Phase-change memory is still in its nascent stages today, more than 50 years after its invention. In his 1969 dissertation, Charles Sie of the Iowa State University explained that a phase change memory device would be "feasible" by integrating chalcogenide film with a diode array. However, some work had been done prior to that by Stanford Ovshinsky at Energy Conversion Devices who believed that the properties of chalcogenide glasses could be used as a potential memory technology. Intel co-founder Gordon Moore also published a paper describing phase-change memory in 1970. Today, the opportunity in PRAM is mainly pursued by Samsung.