1989: MRAM - Computer Memory
As an exotic and very specialized memory technology today, MRAM is not believed to become a successor to Flash anymore. First steps in developing MRAM devices were made by IBM in 1989 and throughout the 1990s, when the company discovered the "giant magnetoresistive" effect in thin-film structures. In 2000, IBM created a joint-venture with Infineon to bring MRAM into production, which resulted in a 128 Kbit MRAM chip built in 180 nm. Until today, MRAM is still waiting for its mainstream breakthrough, but has found customers in smart cards, cell base stations, as well as aerospace and military scenarios.